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What Health Problems Are Associated With Obesity
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High Risk Conditions Associated With Obesity In Covid 19 Affected People
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Received: August 8, 2022 / Revised: August 19, 2022 / Accepted: August 23, 2022 / Published: August 25, 2022
Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by abnormal or excessive accumulation of body fat that affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Obesity is often associated with other metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and cancer. A sedentary lifestyle, overeating, socioeconomic status, and other environmental and genetic conditions can contribute to obesity. Many molecules and signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, Toll-like receptors (TLR), adhesion molecules, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) / death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Commonly used obesity management and treatment strategies include exercise and diet modification or early obesity reduction, bariatric surgery for terminal obesity, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications such as semaglutide and liraglutide used as monotherapy. or as a synergistic treatment. In addition, psychological management is a good solution, especially for obese and suffering patients. The gut microbiota plays an important role in obesity and its comorbidities, and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), the reprogramming of the gut microbiome with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics, shows promising potential in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Many clinical trials are underway to evaluate the therapeutic effects of various treatments. Currently, prevention and early treatment of obesity is the best option to prevent its progression into many comorbidities.
Countering Obesity With Eosinophils And Sympathetic Fat
Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the body. Body mass index (BMI) is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared (kg/m).
) . According to the World Health Organization, there are more than 1 billion people in the world, including 650 million adults, 340 million adolescents and 39 million children, which means that by 2025, about 167 million people will be affected by the disease. 2]. The prevalence of obesity is influenced by many genetic and environmental factors, including gender, race, physical activity, diet, and socioeconomic status . For example, a Japanese study showed that the prevalence of obesity in men was 27.2%, higher than in women (10.6%) . In addition, personal or social background, including marital status, well-being, and current economic status, is associated with obesity in women but not in men .
Many conditions, including a sedentary lifestyle, overeating, socioeconomic status, environmental and genetic factors can lead to obesity . For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to an increase in sedentary time and food consumption and obesity due to a lack of socio-economic activity . Genes encoding leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), kinase suppressor of ras 2 (KSR2), adenylate cyclase (ADCY3), and others contribute to the development and progression of obesity . For example, ADCY3 gene mutations cause obesity in children from consanguineous Pakistani families, while heterozygous mutations are associated with obesity severity in children of European-American descent . Furthermore, the ADCY3 variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of obesity and T2D in the Greenlandic population . ADCY3 mutations play a key role in neuronal function in primary neuronal cilia (microtubule-based cell organelles), causing susceptibility to obesity .
Obesity is commonly associated with many other metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cancer [ 11 , 12 ]. In addition, obesity is positively associated with severity and mortality in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) . Adipose tissue secretes many inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which are a group of key factors of metabolic disorders . Obesity also causes other complications, such as vascular epithelial cell dysfunction and lipid accumulation in organs other than adipose tissue. The following sections first examine the many factors that contribute to obesity-related diseases. Next, the molecular signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of obesity are discussed. Finally, current treatment and management options for obesity are summarized.
Overview Of Obesity In Children: Causes, Symptoms, Complications And Prevention
Obesity directly and indirectly contributes to many other chronic diseases, including CKD, CVD, NAFLD and T2D, as well as to cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) . For example, the prevalence of NAFLD in obese patients can be 70–90% and is positively correlated with BMI (≥35) [ 16 ]. Metabolic disturbances caused by inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity contribute to the morbidity and mortality of these chronic diseases. In this section, we look at some common obesity-related diseases and associated factors.
CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 13.4% of the world’s population. The most common symptoms in patients with CKD include sleep disturbances, weakness, fatigue, pain and itchy skin . Progression of CKD can lead to increased renal replacement and lead to end-stage renal disease . Obesity increases intrarenal fat deposition, decreases glomerular filtration rate, and increases albuminuria. In addition, obesity-related local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, fibrogenesis, and gut microbiome dysbiosis are also associated with the development and progression of CKD [ 20 , 21 , 22 ]. Overweight and obese individuals with metabolic disorders are more likely to develop CKD . Therefore, obese people are advised to control their body weight and eat healthy.
Obesity-related factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, vascular endothelial dysfunction, and sleep disorders, may contribute to CVD [24, 25]. Obesity-related diseases such as CKD and NAFLD also contribute to CVD [26, 27]. For example, obesity-related chronic inflammation in metabolic tissues (eg, adipose tissue and liver) alters the expression of adipocytokines and adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which affects energy metabolism and impairs endothelial function. to increase the risk of CVD . In addition, adipose tissue can secrete many other adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 . Their role in the pathogenesis of CHD is different. Adipocytokines such as omentin and adiponectin secreted from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have anti-inflammatory functions. They can regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells and inhibit vascular calcification to prevent atherogenesis and inflammation . In contrast, resistin and TNF-α expression contribute to insulin resistance in obesity and T2D. IL-6 is an important cytokine in lipid accumulation in the myocardium . Inhibition of IL-6 expression or its receptor in the IL-6 signaling pathway reduces the risk of coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation as well as T2D .
NAFLD is the most common form of chronic liver disease, affecting more than 25% of the world’s population [32, 33]. NAFLD is a risk factor for T2D, CVD and HCC. A large cohort study shows that overweight and obesity are positively and strongly associated with the prevalence of NALFD in metabolically healthy men and women, with multivariable adjusted mean hazard ratios of 2.15 and 3.55, respectively . The prevalence of NAFLD and NASH will increase in several countries, as predicted in a model based on the prevalence of obesity and T2D . Many obesity-related factors may contribute to NAFLD and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), including subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) dysfunction , insulin resistance , inflammation , and gut microbiota dysbiosis.  and imbalance in energy metabolism .
The Effects Of Obesity On Your Body
Although obesity contributes to NAFLD, lean patients with NAFLD have a higher risk of liver mortality compared to obese and overweight subjects . These lean patients with NAFLD have no accumulation of visceral fat (abdominal fat), less fibrosis and less prevalence of T2D compared to obese patients, but often have dyslipidemia .
T2D is a chronic disease