What Are The Functions Of Proteins In The Cell Membrane – Proteins are the “workhorse” of the body and are involved in many body functions. As we discussed earlier, proteins come in all shapes and sizes, and each is designed for a different function. This page describes some important functions of proteins. As you read them, remember that the synthesis of all these different proteins requires substantial amounts of amino acids. As you can imagine, eating a diet deficient in protein and essential amino acids can affect many body functions. (More on this later in the episode.)
The main types and functions of proteins are summarized in the table below, and subsequent sections on this page provide more details on each.
What Are The Functions Of Proteins In The Cell Membrane
Absorption of macronutrients in small monomers; It acts on metabolic pathways to allow nutrient utilization
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The human body contains more than a hundred different structural proteins, but by far the most abundant is collagen, which makes up 6% of the total body weight. Collagen makes up 30 percent of bone tissue and contains large amounts of tendons, ligaments, cartilage, skin, and muscle. Collagen is a tough, fibrous protein consisting mostly of the amino acids glycine and proline. In the rectangle, three protein strands are twisted around each other like a rope, and then these collagen strands overlap each other.
This high order structure is stronger than steel fibers of the same size. Collagen makes bones strong but flexible. Collagen fibers in the dermis provide structure, and associated elastin protein fibers make it flexible. Pinch the skin on your hand and then release; The collagen and elastin proteins in the skin allow it to return to its original shape. Smooth-muscle cells lining the blood vessels produce collagen and elastin proteins, which give the vessels structure and ability to bounce back after being loaded with blood. Another tough, fibrous protein is keratin, which is an important component of skin, hair and nails.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze certain chemical reactions. An enzyme’s job is to provide space for a chemical reaction and reduce the energy and time required for that chemical reaction (it’s called a “catalyst”). On average, more than 100 chemical reactions occur every second, and many of them require enzymes. The liver alone contains over 1,000 enzyme systems. Enzymes are specific and use only specific substances suitable for their active site. Fortunately, an enzyme can repeat its role as a catalyst, although it is eventually destroyed and rebuilt. Enzymes are involved in all body functions, including the breakdown of nutrients in the stomach and small intestine, the conversion of nutrients into molecules, and the construction of all macromolecules, including proteins.
Figure 6.11. Enzymes are proteins. The function of enzymes is to provide space for substances to form chemical reactions and products, and to reduce the amount of energy and time it takes for this to happen.
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Video: “Enzymes,” by The Amoeba Sisters, YouTube (August 28, 2016), 5:46 min. This video shows the action of an enzyme.
They are chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands. When an endocrine gland is stimulated, a hormone is released. The hormone is then carried in the bloodstream to the target cell, where it sends a message to initiate a specific response or cellular process. For example, after eating, your blood glucose level rises. In response to increased blood glucose, the pancreas secretes the hormone insulin. Insulin tells the body’s cells that glucose is available and removes it from the blood and uses it to store or produce energy or build macromolecules. The main function of hormones is to turn enzymes on and off, so some proteins can also control the action of other proteins. Not all hormones are made of protein, but many are.
Adequate protein intake allows the body’s basic biological processes to maintain homeostasis (a stable or steady state) in a changing environment. One aspect of this is to ensure that water balance is properly distributed to different parts of the body. If too much water is suddenly transferred from the blood to the tissue, the results are inflammation and possibly cell death. Water always flows from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. As a result, water moves to other areas of higher concentration
, such as protein and glucose. Proteins are constantly distributed in large quantities in the blood to ensure that water is distributed evenly between the blood and cells. The most abundant protein in the blood is a bead-shaped protein called albumin. The presence of albumin in the blood makes the concentration of protein in the blood similar to that in the cells. Therefore, fluid exchange between blood and cells is not extreme, but it is reduced to maintain homeostasis.
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Figure 6.12. A bead-shaped protein, albumin has many functions in the body, including maintaining fluid and acid-base balance and transporting molecules.
Protein is also important for maintaining proper blood pH balance (a measure of how acidic or basic a substance is). Blood pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45, which is slightly basic. Even small changes in blood pH can affect body function. To prevent this from happening, the body has several systems that keep the blood pH within a normal range. One of these is circulating albumin. Albumin is slightly acidic, and because it is negatively charged, it balances the many positively charged molecules, such as hydrogen protons (H), circulating in the blood.
), calcium, potassium and magnesium. Albumin acts as a buffer to prevent sudden changes in the concentrations of these molecules, thereby maintaining blood pH balance and homeostasis. Protein hemoglobin is involved in acid-base balance by binding hydrogen protons.
Protein plays an important role in transporting substances around the body. For example, albumin chemically binds to hormones, fatty acids, some vitamins, essential minerals, and drugs and transports them through the circulatory system. Each red blood cell contains millions of hemoglobin molecules that bind oxygen in the lungs and carry it to all body tissues. The plasma membrane of the cell is usually not permeable to large polar molecules, so in order to bring the necessary substances and molecules into the cell, many transport proteins are located in the cell membrane. Some of these proteins are channels that allow certain molecules to enter and leave cells. Others operate as one-way taxis and require labor to operate.
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Figure 6.13. Molecules move in and out of cells through transport proteins, which are channels or carriers.
Video: “Sodium-Potassium Pump,” by RicochetScience, YouTube (May 23, 2016), 2:26 min. This tutorial explains how the sodium-potassium pump uses active transport to move sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) out of the cell.
Protein also plays an important role in the immune system. The strong collagen fibers in the skin provide structure and support, but also act as protection from harmful substances. The attacking and killing functions of the immune system are based on enzymes and antibodies, which are proteins. For example, an enzyme called lysozyme is secreted into the saliva and attacks the bacterial wall, causing it to break down. Certain proteins circulating in the blood can instruct foreign invaders to construct nuclear knives that pierce cellular membranes. Antibodies produced by white blood cells scan the entire circulatory system. Antibodies stimulate other immune systems to seek out and destroy unwanted invaders.
Video: “Specific Immunity, Antibodies,” by Carpe Noctum, YouTube (December 11, 2007), 1 min. Watch this video to see how antibodies protect against foreign invaders.
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Certain amino acids in protein are stored and used to make energy. Only 10 percent of daily dietary protein is broken down to make cellular energy. The liver can break down amino acids into carbon skeletons, which can then be fed into the citric acid or Krebs cycle. This is similar to how glucose is used to make ATP. If a person’s diet does not have enough carbohydrates and fat, their body will use excess amino acids to create energy, which hinders the synthesis of new proteins and can destroy muscle proteins if calorie intake is low.
Amino acids are used only for energy, but can be used to synthesize glucose through gluconeogenesis. Alternatively, if a person eats a high-protein diet and consumes more calories than the body needs, the excess amino acids are broken down and converted to fat. Unlike carbohydrates and fats, protein does not have a special storage system for later use for energy.
Proteins that help speed up or facilitate chemical reactions in the body; They combine two compounds to form a reaction,
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