What Are The Functions Of Plasma Proteins – Many pathological conditions affect the level of pps Mainly synthesized in the liver Some produced elsewhere
MOSTLY DONE IN HEPAR Exception: -globulin – synthesized in plasma cells Synthesized as proteins in membrane-bound polaribosomes. then they undergo post-translational modifications on the ER and the Golgi apparatus ALL ARE MALT GLYCOPROTEINS Exception: albumin They have a specific half-life in circulation (albumin – 20 days) Many show polymorphism (immunoglobulins, transferrin…)
What Are The Functions Of Plasma Proteins
Relative amount (%) γ (g/l) Albumin: albumin, proalbumin (transthyretin) 52 – 58 34 – 50 1-globulin: thyroxine binding globulin, tracortin, 1-acid glycoprotein, 1-antitrypsin, 1- lipoprotein (HDL), 1-fetoprotein 2.4 – 4.4 2-4 2-globins: haptoglobin, macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin 6.1 – 10.1 5 – 9 -globins: transcurrin, haemoglobin (LDL-fipopro ), reactive protein, C3 and C4 of the complement system 8.5 – 14.5 6 – 11 -globulin: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE 10 – 21 8 – 15
Blood Function And Composition
Globules album α-globulins: α1 α α2-globulins β-globulins: β1 α β2-globulins g-globulins fibrinogen Under various pathological conditions, protein levels deviate from the normal range.
TRANSPORTATION OF SUBSTANCES: e.g. albumin – fatty acids, bilirubin, calcium, drug transfer – iron serulplasmin – copper transcortin – cortisol, lipoproteins corticosterone – lipids haptoglobin – free hemoglobin thyroxine binding globulin – thyroxine retinol binding protein – retinol
OSMOTIC REGULATION: Plasma proteins are colloidal and non-diffusible and exert a colloid osmotic pressure that helps maintain normal blood volume and normal water content in the interstitial fluid and tissues. Albumin content is most important in regulating colloid or tumor osmotic pressure. A decrease in the albumin level results in water being lost from the blood and entering the interstitial fluids causing oedema. CATALYTIC FUNCTION (enzymes): e.g. lipase to remove lipids from the blood
PROTECTIVE FUNCTION: Immune globulins combine with foreign antigens and remove them. The complement system removes cell antigens. Inhibitors remove enzymes by forming complexes with them. e.g. α1-antitrypsin combines with elastase, trypsin and protects against hydrolytic damage of tissues such as the lungs. Certain proteins increase during the acute phase and protect the body. E.g. α1-antitrypsin, α2-macroglobulins.
Solution: Plasma Proteins And Its Disorders Dr Okwor
BLOOD COAGULATION: Many factors are involved in the clotting mechanism and prevent excessive blood loss. e.g. clotting factors IX, VIII, thrombin, fibrinogen, etc. Disease is the result of excessive deficiency. e.g. hemophilia, clot formation ANTI-THROWING ACTION (thrombolysis): Plasma clears the thrombin and dissolves the clot REGULATORY RESOURCE: Plasma proteins help maintain acid-base balance
Transferrin Ferritin Ceruloplasmin Haptoglobulin Haemopexin (binds heme and transports it to the liver) acts as antioxidants: it removes Fe 2+ and thus prevents the Fenton reaction: H2O2 + Fe2+ → HO• + OH− + Fe3+
A) Quantitative measurement of a specific protein: Chemical or immunological reactions B) Semi-quantitative measurement by electrophoresis: Proteins are separated from their electrical charge in electrophoresis Five distinct protein bands are observed these bands vary according to disease
Solved Chapter 19: Blood Look In The First Paragraph In The
1. Albumin (54% of blood proteins) These maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood. This pressure is important to drive fluid into the capillaries from the interstitial space. Album also controls blood. Albumin contributes to the thickness (viscosity) of the blood. Albumin can transport lipids and steroid hormones. 2. Globulins (immunoglobulins) (38% of blood proteins) These proteins include antibodies (immunoglobulins) that attack foreign proteins and pathogens. There are also smaller globulins that bind, support, and protect certain water-insoluble or hydrophobic ions, hormones, and other compounds that might otherwise be filtered from the blood to the kidneys or have very low solubility water them. 3. Fibrinogens (7% of blood proteins) They are proteins that are important for blood clotting after trauma to the blood vessels. They are converted to another protein called fibrin during clotting. There are also regulatory proteins such as enzymes involved in the chemical reactions that occur in the blood and hormones that are transported throughout the body to their target cells.
Click here for an animation of how erythritol components are recycled. Practice questions follow the animation.
1. Vasospasm Blood vessel damage stimulates pain receptors Reflex vasoconstriction of small blood vessels and arterioles occurs Can reduce blood loss for several hours until other mechanisms take over 2. Platelet plug formation, 3 steps –
3. Platelet aggregation – activated platelets stick together and activate new platelets to form a mass called a platelet plug, a plug reinforced with fibrin strands formed during the clotting process
Animation: Functions Of The Plasma Membrane
Clot retraction follows a few minutes after the cascade – clot plugs have ruptured the area of the blood vessel, platelets pull on fibrin strands causing the clot to contract and expel serum, the ends of the damaged vessel are pulled together, repair endothelial cells. the blood vessel
ABO blood groups – based on 2 glycolipid isoantigens called A and B found on the surface of red blood cells
Showing only A antigen — blood group A – showing only B antigen — blood group B – showing both A and B antigens — blood group AB – showing either antigen — blood group O
Click here for an animation about blood types and the role of antibodies when donating or receiving blood.
Serum Or Plasma Total Protein
HDN Rh-negative mom and Rh+ fetus will have blood mixing at birth Mom’s body makes Rh antibodies if she doesn’t get RhoGam vaccine soon after the first birth, miscarriage or abortion. In the 2nd child, hemolytic disease of the newborn may cause hemolysis of fetal red blood cells
Levels, red blood cells are deformed by changes in the hemoglobin molecule inside the red blood cells sickle breaks easily = anemia and blood clots
Man with only one sickle cell gene increased resistance to malaria because RBC membranes leak K+ and low K+ levels kill a parasite that infects red blood cells
Bleeding spontaneously or after minor trauma, subcutaneous and intramuscular bleeding, epistaxis, blood in the urine, joint bleeding & pain
Pdf] Seminal Plasma Proteins And Metabolites: Effects On Sperm Function And Potential As Fertility Markers
This material is based on work supported by the Nursing, Allied Health and Other Health-Related Education Grant Program, a grant program funded by State Tobacco Law Settlement proceeds and administered by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Council. Human plasma is 97% V/V water. Of the remaining 3% occupied by solids, over 95% is occupied by proteins. More than 50 groups of proteins are known to exist in plasma, of which more than 95% can be attributed to 13 proteins. These proteins include: (albumin, α1-antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, α-lipoprotein, transferrin, complement, fibrinogen, IgA, IgG and IgM).
Individual proteins have specific functions including:- 1- Transport eg: bilirubin, minerals, hormones. 2- Colloid osmotic pressure, mainly albumin. 3- Active enzymes, eg: supplements, clotting factor. 4- Enzyme inhibitors, eg: protease inhibitors. 5- Humoral immunity, eg: immunoglobulins, supplements. 6- Endogenous source of amino acids.
About (85) % of all plasma proteins are synthesized in the liver. Most of the rest (especially immunoglobulin) is synthesized by plasma cells and cells of the reticuloendothelial system, and the site of synthesis of the major plasma proteins is known with certainty. The location of the degradation is not at all clear. Most of the tissues are degraded by proteins. Important sites of degradation include the liver, intestine, muscles and kidneys. The control of protein synthesis and degradation is complex and often involves factors such as nutritional status, circulating plasma level (feedback), hormonal and neural.
The normal range for total serum protein is g/L (g/dl). There are two general reasons for a change in total serum protein: 1. Change in plasma water volume. 2. A change in the concentration of one or more of the specified proteins. A decrease in the amount of plasma water (blood concentration) as occurs in dehydration due to insufficient water intake or excessive water loss due to vomiting, diarrhea or burns is manifested as hyperproteinemia (with an increased concentration of each individual protein). Hemodilution (increase in the amount of plasma water) is manifested as hypoproteinemia. This occurs with water poisoning and massive intravenous infusions.
Solved Plasma Is 90% Water And 8% Plasma Proteins. The Other
Concentration that a low level of this protein alone causes hypoproteinemia An increase in the concentration of specific proteins can lead to mild hyperproteinemia such as an increase in acute phase proteins and polyclonal immunoglobulins as a result of infection, chronic inflammation, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver. High levels of monoclonal immunoglobulins, produced in multiple myeloma, can cause severe hyperproteinemia.
In general, the following tests are usually requested to define the pattern of abnormality. These include: – 1- Total serum protein. 2 – Serum albumin. 3- Serum albumin: globulin ratio, where globulin = total protein – albumin and the normal range for the A:G ratio is 4- serum protein electrophoresis where different protein fractions are separated. 5- Measuring specific protein concentration.
. Diurea method for measuring total protein Principle Peptide bonds (– C – N – ) of proteins react with copper ions in an alkaline solution to create a violet colored product whose absorbance at 540 nm is proportional to the protein concentration.
8 Procedure 1-
Solution: Plasma Proteins
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