Picture Of Human Liver In Body – The liver is the largest organ in the body, and the average adult weighs about 1.4 kg (3 pounds). The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, just below the diaphragm in the right upper abdomen, below the right rib cage, just below the right lung, fills most of the right hypochondrium and epigastric region, and extends into the left hypochondrium region. . The liver is partially surrounded by ribs and extends from the level of the fifth intercostal space to the lower edge of the right rib, protecting the heavily vascularized organ from blows that could tear it. The liver is wedge-shaped, with a wide base directed to the right and a narrow end slightly below the level of the left nipple. Red-brown liver is well supplied with blood vessels.
A fibrous capsule covers the liver and ligaments divide the organ into a large right lobe and a small left lobe (Figure 2).
Picture Of Human Liver In Body
The liver also has two small lobes, the quadrate lobe and the caudate lobe. Each lobe is divided into many small liver lobules, which are functional units of the liver (Figure 3). Lobules consist of many hepatocytes radiating outward from a central vein. Blood-filled channels called hepatic sinusoids separate them from other plate-like groups of cells. Blood from the digestive tract transported through the hepatic portal vein brings newly absorbed nutrients into the sinusoids and nourishes the hepatocytes.
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Large phagocytic macrophages called Kupffer cells are anchored in the lining of the liver sinusoids. It removes bacteria or other foreign substances that have entered the blood through the intestinal wall and travels through the hepatic portal vein to the liver. Blood from these sinusoids enters the central vein of the hepatic lobule and exits the liver through the hepatic vein.
Inside the lobules of the liver are many microscopic bile ducts that carry secretions from the liver cells into the bile ducts. The ducts of adjacent lobules converge and eventually form the hepatic duct. These ducts in turn combine to form a common hepatic duct.
Footnotes: (a) Transverse section of liver lobules. (b) Magnified longitudinal section of liver lobule. (c) Cross-sectional light micrograph of liver lobules.
The incredibly versatile liver performs over 500 functions. Its digestive function is to produce bile, a green alkaline liquid that is stored in the gallbladder and secreted into the duodenum. Bile salts emulsify fats in the small intestine. In other words, it breaks down fat nutrients into tiny particles, just like dish detergent breaks up clumps of fat that drip into a pot. These small particles are more accessible to digestive enzymes in the pancreas. The liver also performs many metabolic functions and we cannot live without it.
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Almost all of these functions are performed by a type of cell called hepatocytes or simply liver cells.
The liver performs many important metabolic activities. The liver plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism by helping to keep blood sugar levels within a normal range. Liver cells in response to the hormone insulin polymerize glucose into glycogen, which lowers blood sugar levels. Liver cells that respond to the hormone glucagon break down glycogen into glucose or convert non-carbohydrates into glucose, raising blood sugar levels.
The effects of the liver on lipid metabolism include the oxidation (breakdown) of fatty acids at particularly high rates. lipoprotein, phospholipid and cholesterol synthesis; Converts the excess of carbohydrate molecules into fat molecules. Blood transports the fat synthesized in the liver to adipose tissue for storage.
Another function of the liver is related to protein metabolism. These include deaminated amino acids. urea formation; synthesis of plasma proteins such as coagulation factors; Converts certain amino acids into other amino acids.
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The liver also stores many substances, including glycogen, iron, and vitamins A, D, and B12. Macrophages in the liver also help destroy damaged red blood cells and phagocytose foreign antigens. The liver also removes toxic substances, such as alcohol and certain drugs, from the blood (detoxification). Table 1 summarizes the major functions of the liver.
Bile is a yellow-green liquid continuously secreted by hepatocytes. In addition to water, bile contains bile salts, bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin), cholesterol, and electrolytes. Among these, bile salts are the most abundant and are the only bile component with digestive function.
Bile pigment is a breakdown product of hemoglobin in red blood cells and is normally secreted in bile.
Jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bile pigments, has several causes. In obstructive jaundice, the bile duct is blocked, possibly by gallstones or a tumor. In hepatocellular jaundice, the liver is diseased as in cirrhosis or hepatitis. In hemolytic jaundice, red blood cells are destroyed too quickly, as occurs with incompatible blood transfusions or blood infections.
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Normally, bile does not enter the duodenum until cholecystokinin stimulates gallbladder contraction. The intestinal lining releases these hormones in response to proteins and fats in the small intestine. The hepatopancreatic sphincter normally remains contracted until peristaltic waves from the duodenal wall approach. Then the sphincter relaxes and bile is injected into the duodenum.
Bile salts help digestive enzymes. Bile salts affect fat globules (coagulated fat molecules) just like soaps and detergents do. In other words, bile salts break down fat globules into smaller droplets that are more soluble in water. This action, called emulsification, greatly increases the total surface area of the fatty substance. The fat droplets produced are dispersed in water. This allows lipolytic enzymes (lipases) to digest fat molecules more efficiently. Bile salts also improve absorption of fatty acids, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac located in a depression on the lower surface of the liver. The gallbladder is surrounded by epithelial cells and has a strong smooth muscle layer on its walls. The gallbladder stores bile between meals, reabsorbs water to concentrate the bile, and contracts to release the bile into the small intestine. It connects to the cystic duct and in turn joins the common hepatic duct.
The common hepatic duct and the cystic duct come together to form the common bile duct (common bile duct). It leads into the duodenum where the hepatopancreatic sphincter guards the exit. Because this sphincter is normally tightened, bile collects in the bile ducts. It flows back into the cystic duct and into the gallbladder where it is stored. Weighing about 3 pounds, the liver is the second largest organ in the body. Only the skin is larger and heavier. The liver performs many basic functions related to digestion, metabolism, immunity, and storage of nutrients in the body. These functions make the liver an important organ that does not rapidly die of body tissue due to lack of energy and nutrients. Fortunately, the liver has an amazing ability to regenerate dead or damaged tissue. It can grow rapidly like a cancerous tumor to regain normal size and function. Keep scrolling for more details below…
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The liver is a roughly triangular organ that spans the entire abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm. Most of the liver mass is on the right side of the body going down towards the right kidney. The liver is composed of very soft pinkish-brown tissue surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. This capsule is further covered and strengthened by the peritoneum in the abdominal cavity to protect the liver and hold it in place inside the abdomen.
The peritoneum connects the liver at 4 locations: the coronary ligament, the left and right deltoid ligaments, and the falciform ligament. These connections are not true ligaments in an anatomical sense. Rather, they are condensed parts of the peritoneum that support the liver.
The ducts that carry bile through the liver and gallbladder are known as bile ducts and form a branching structure known as the biliary tract. Bile produced by liver cells drains into tiny channels known as bile ducts. Numerous bile ducts merge into many larger bile ducts located throughout the liver.
These bile ducts then merge to form the larger left and right hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the left and right lobes of the liver. These two hepatic ducts merge to form a common hepatic duct that drains all bile from the liver. The common hepatic duct finally joins with the cystic duct of the gallbladder to form the common bile duct and carries bile to the duodenum in the small intestine. Most of the bile produced by the liver is pushed back into the cystic duct by peristalsis to reach the gallbladder for storage until needed for digestion.
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The blood supply of the liver is unique among all organs in the body due to the hepatic portal system. Blood traveling to the spleen, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and intestine passes through the capillaries in these organs and collects in the portal vein. The hepatic portal vein delivers this blood to the tissues.
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