Long Strands Of Dna Found In The Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus – Ruairi is a senior science writer at Technology Networks. He has a master’s degree in clinical neuroscience from the University of Cambridge and has been writing for Technology Networks since 2018.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are perhaps the most important molecules in cell biology, responsible for storing and reading the genetic information that sustains all life. They are both linear polymers made up of sugar, phosphates and bases, but there are some key differences that separate the two.
Long Strands Of Dna Found In The Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus
. These differences allow the two molecules to work together and fulfill their essential roles. Here we look at the 5 main differences between DNA and RNA. Before we delve into the differences, let’s look at these two nucleic acids side by side.
What Are The Steps Of Dna Replication
There are several differences that separate DNA from RNA. This includes the functions of the two molecules, their structure, their average length, the sugar (DNA contains deoxyribose and RNA contains ribose) and base molecules (RNA contains uracil instead of thymine) that they contain, their location and their reactivity to enzymes and ultraviolet light . .
DNA replicates and stores genetic information. It is a blueprint for all genetic information in an organism.
RNA converts the genetic information found in DNA into a format used to build proteins and then moves it to the ribosomal protein factories.
DNA consists of two strands arranged in a double helix. These strands are made up of units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar molecule and a nitrogenous base.
Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes
RNA has only one strand, but like DNA, it is made up of nucleotides. RNA strands are shorter than DNA strands. RNA sometimes forms a secondary double helix structure, but only intermittently.
DNA is a much longer polymer than RNA. A chromosome, for example, is a single, long DNA molecule that would be several centimeters long when unwound.
RNA molecules are variable in length, but much shorter than the long DNA polymers. A large RNA molecule can be only a few thousand base pairs long.
RNA shares adenine (“A”), guanine (“G”) and cytosine (“C”) with DNA, but contains uracil (“U”) instead of thymine.
In Vivo Dna Replication
RNA is formed in the nucleus, and then moves to specialized regions of the cytoplasm depending on the type of RNA formed.
Because of its deoxyribose sugar, which contains a less oxygen-containing hydroxyl group, DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA, which is useful for a molecule tasked with keeping genetic information safe.
RNA, which contains a ribose sugar, is more reactive than DNA and is not stable under alkaline conditions. The larger helical grooves of RNA mean that it is more easily attacked by enzymes.
DNA encodes all genetic information and is the blueprint from which all biological life is created. And this is only short-term. In the long run, DNA is a storage device, a biological flash drive that allows the blueprint of life to be passed down between generations.
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. ARN works as a reader that decodes this flash drive. This reading process is multi-step and there are specialized RNAs for each of these steps. Below we look at the three most important types of RNA in more detail.
Both DNA and RNA are built with a sugar backbone, but while the sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose (pictured left), the sugar in RNA is simply called ribose (pictured right). The prefix “deoxy” indicates that, while RNA has two hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to its carbon red, DNA has only one, attaching a single hydrogen atom instead. The extra hydroxyl group of RNA is helpful in the process of converting the genetic code into mRNA that can be converted into proteins, while the deoxyribose sugar gives DNA more stability
The nitrogenous bases in DNA are the basic units of the genetic code, and their correct order and pairing is essential for biological function. The four bases that make up this code are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The bases pair together in a double helix structure, these pairs are A and T, and C and G. RNA does not contain thymine bases, replacing them with uracil (U) bases that pair with adenine
While the ubiquity of Francis Crick and James Watson’s DNA double helix (or should that be Rosalind Franklin’s?) means that the double-stranded structure of DNA’s structure is familiar, the single-stranded format of RNA is not so well known. RNA can form into double-stranded structures, such as during translation, when mRNA and tRNA molecules pair up. DNA polymers are also much longer than RNA polymers; The 2.3 m long human genome consists of 46 chromosomes, each of which is a single long DNA molecule. In comparison, RNA molecules are much shorter
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Eukaryotic cells, including all animal and plant cells, have most of their DNA in the nucleus, where it exists in a tightly packed form called a chromosome.
. This compressed format means that DNA can be easily stored and transferred. In addition to nuclear DNA, some DNA is present in the energy-producing mitochondria, small organelles that float freely in the cytoplasm, the area of the cell outside the nucleus.
The three types of RNA are found in different locations. mRNA is produced in the nucleus, with each mRNA fragment copied from its relative DNA fragment before leaving the nucleus and entering the cytoplasm. The fragments are then passed around the cell as needed, along the cell’s internal transport system, the cytoskeleton. tRNA, like mRNA, is a free-floating molecule that moves around the cytoplasm. When it receives the correct signal from the ribosome, it tracks down the amino acid subunits in the cytoplasm and brings them to the ribosome to be built into proteins.
. rRNA, as mentioned earlier, is found as part of ribosomes. Ribosomes form in an area of the nucleus called the nucleolus, before being exported to the cytoplasm, where some ribosomes float freely. Other cytoplasmic ribosomes are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, a membrane structure that helps to process proteins and export them out of the cell.
Unique Characteristics Of Eukaryotic Cells
The structure we have described in this article is certainly the most common form of DNA, but it is not the whole story. There are other forms of DNA and RNA that subvert the classical structures of these nucleic acids.
Z-DNA While the DNA structure you see above—and in any biology textbook you care to open—has a right helix, there are also left-handed DNA molecules. These are known as Z-DNA. The canonical, “classic” DNA is called B-DNA.
Z-DNA is believed to play a role in the regulation of gene expression and can be produced by DNA processing enzymes such as DNA polymerase.
A-DNA Identified at the same time as B-DNA by Rosalind Franklin, A-DNA is an alternative DNA structure that often appears when the molecule is dehydrated. Many crystal structures of DNA are in an A-DNA form. It has a shorter structure, with a different number of base pairs per turn and tilt than B-DNA. The biological importance of A-DNA has greatly increased in recent years, and it is now recognized that A-DNA is involved in many roles, such as
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Triplex DNA A triple-helix DNA structure can form when several nucleobases – pyrimidines or purines – occupy major grooves in conventional B-DNA. This can happen naturally or as part of deliberate DNA modification strategies for research purposes.
Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind conventional double-stranded DNA, which can directly help agents used to modify DNA at specific genomic sites. H-DNA is an endogenous triple-stranded DNA molecule that promotes genome mutation.
DsRNA Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is most common as the genomic core of many plant, animal and human viruses. These include reoviridae and rotaviruses, which are responsible for diseases such as gastroenteritis. dsRNA molecules are powerful immunogens – they activate the immune system, which then cleaves the dsDNA as a defense mechanism. The discovery of the protein machinery that enables this reaction led to the development of RNAi gene silencing technology, which won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006. Eukaryotic organisms include protozoa, algae, fungi, plants and animals. Some eukaryotic cells are independent, single microorganisms, while others are part of multicellular organisms. The cells of eukaryotic organisms have several different characteristics. Above all, eukaryotic cells are defined by the presence of a nucleus surrounded by a complex nuclear membrane. Even eukaryotic cells are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm. Organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and peroxisomes are held in place by the cytoskeleton, an internal network that supports the transport of intracellular components and helps maintain cell shape (Figure (PageIndex)) . The genome of eukaryotic cells is packaged into multiple, rod-shaped chromosomes, as opposed to the single, circular chromosome that characterizes most prokaryotic cells. Table (PageIndex) compares the characteristics of eukaryotic cell structures with those of bacteria and archaea.
Figure (PageIndex): An illustration of a generalized, unicellular eukaryotic organism. Note that the cells of eukaryotic organisms vary greatly in structure and function, and a given cell may not have all the structures shown here.
Dna Replication Steps And Process
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