Functions Of The Stomach In Digestion

By | April 11, 2023
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Functions Of The Stomach In Digestion – Did you know that digestion is a north to south process? It starts in your brain and ends in your bottom. Digestion requires two basic actions involved in the metabolic and chemical production of food: cutting food into the smallest possible particles so that nutrients can be easily and efficiently absorbed by the body. These nutrients are essential for every function in your body and are used by every cell, organ, and system for fuel and energy!

Interestingly, the sight and smell of food wakes up and activates our salivary glands so they can start producing saliva. Saliva is key to the entire digestive process because it contains water and dissolved substances. Solubilizers are enzymes, and in this case amylases that help break down carbohydrates. All this happens even before we finish eating. When we say something good, here is the reason!

Functions Of The Stomach In Digestion

Functions Of The Stomach In Digestion

The mouth is the entrance to the digestive system and where the digestion of all nutrients takes place. Along with the physical act of eating, there is a chemical (enzymatic) breakdown of food here and this creates a food pellet (a whole meal).

Gastrointestinal Tract 5: The Anatomy And Functions Of The Large Intestine

When swallowed, the food pellet enters the esophagus, ready to enter the stomach. It passes down a small valve, called the cardiac sphincter. When everything in the digestive system is working properly, a small valve opens (and closes as needed) to let food go down to the stomach and prevent it from coming back up.

When the pellet reaches the intestine, it mixes with the intestinal fluid and becomes chyme (from the Greek khūmos “juice”). If digestion is working properly, the stomach secretes fluids from the millions of tiny glands in its skin. This is where a properly functioning digestive system will produce HCl (hydrochloric acid) and pepsin. Unfortunately, many of us are unbalanced and do not have these important nutritional secrets. Without the appropriate level of stomach acid, chyme cannot break down to the point where it is released into the small intestine. Food that gets stuck in the stomach can cause acid reflux, H. pylori, GERD, and other digestive problems.

When the stomach has finished breaking down food into chyme, it triggers a valve at the base of the stomach to open, allowing the chyme to enter an opening called the duodenum. The duodenum is the first and shortest part of the small intestine to receive chyme from the stomach and plays an important role in the chemical digestion of chyme in preparation for absorption in the small intestine. It is in the duodenum that the highly acidic chyme is “cold” and further diluted by bile and pancreatic juice. This is important for emulsification and absorption of fat.

Note: The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are called bile ducts. Food particles do not pass directly through the biliary tract. Instead, bile (produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder) along with digestive juices, enzymes, and bicarbonate (produced by the pancreas) enter the digestive tract through ducts in the duodenum. In other words, while the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas do not “eat food,” they are important for all digestion (as are the valves/sphincters (small gates)).

The Stomach (2.1.2)

As the largest organ in the body, the liver has more than 500 functions including making bile and filtering toxins. Bile is a fluid that helps break down fats and remove toxins that the liver removes from the body. Bile also lubricates the intestines preventing constipation. Without properly functioning bile, the body cannot absorb fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

The gallbladder is a gland that stores bile produced by the liver. When you eat fat, the gallbladder is activated to release bile into the duodenum, where it mixes with pancreatic juice to break down food into molecules that can be absorbed into the small intestine.

The pancreas is a gland that produces digestive juices, a mixture of bicarbonate and pancreatic enzymes that help digest fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. As bile from the gallbladder breaks down fat into microscopic particles, dietary lipase enzymes from the pancreas can further break down fat for absorption in the small intestine. The pancreas produces insulin that converts sugar into energy and also stores excess sugar as fat. And, the pancreas helps your digestive system by making hormones. Pancreatic hormones help regulate blood sugar and appetite, stimulate stomach acid and tell the stomach when it needs to empty.

Functions Of The Stomach In Digestion

The small intestine is the part of the intestine where 90% of digestion and absorption of food takes place. (The remaining 10 percent will occur in the stomach and large intestine, along with supporting organs such as the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder). The main function of the small intestine is to absorb nutrients and minerals from food.

Cary Gastroenterology Associates

The large intestine recycles water and waste, maintaining colon cells. It takes up any lost nutrients that are still available (with the help of gut bacteria) and converts the nutrients into vitamins K, B1, B2, B12. Then butyric acid forms and it’s time to go to the bathroom! Although a small amount of digested carbohydrates occurs in the mouth, the actual chemical digestion occurs in the stomach. An extension of the alimentary canal at the bottom of the esophagus, the stomach connects the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) and is fixed at the top of the esophagus and duodenum. Inside, however, it can be a very active system, shrinking and constantly changing position and size. These contractions provide mechanical support for the process of digestion. An empty stomach is about the size of your fist, but it can stretch to hold up to 4 liters of food and water, or more than 75 times its empty volume, then return to its resting size when empty. . While you might think that a person’s stomach size is related to the amount of food an individual eats, body weight does not correlate with stomach size. Instead, when you eat more food—for example, at a leisurely dinner—your stomach will bloat more than when you eat less.

Popular culture tends to see the stomach as the place where all digestion takes place. Of course this is not true. The main function of the stomach is to act as temporary storage. You can eat food much faster than your small intestine can absorb. Therefore, the stomach holds food and washes only a small amount into the small intestine at a time. We do not prepare foods in the order they are eaten; instead, they mix with the digestive juices in the stomach until they turn into chyme, which is released into the small intestine.

As you will see in the following sections, the stomach plays several important roles in chemical digestion, including the digestion of carbohydrates and the primary digestion of proteins and triglycerides. . Most if any absorption of food occurs in the stomach, except for negligible amounts of nutrients in alcohol.

There are four main regions in the stomach: the heart, fundus, body, and pylorus. The heart (or heart region) is the point where the esophagus joins the stomach and through which food enters the stomach. Located below the diaphragm, above and to the left of the heart, is the dome-shaped base. Below is the body, the first part of the stomach. The funnel-shaped pylorus connects the stomach to the duodenum. The end of the funnel, the pyloric cavity, joins the body of the stomach. The narrow end, called the pyloric canal, connects to the duodenum. The pyloric sphincter is a smooth muscle that is responsible for this secondary and gastric emptying control. When there is no food, the stomach collapses inward, and its mucosa and submucosa collapse into a large fold called the mat.

Accessory Organs Of Digestion

Figure 1. The stomach has four main regions: cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. The addition of an internal oblique smooth muscle layer gives the muscle layer a strong ability to stir and mix food.

The division of the stomach is called the greater curvature; Concave middle border is less curvature. The stomach is held in place by the lesser omentum, which extends from the liver to the lower abdomen, and the greater omentum, which runs from the greater omentum to the posterior abdominal wall.

The stomach wall is made up of four layers like most of the rest of the digestive system, but with mucosal and muscular structures to perform its unique functions. In addition to the representative circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers, the muscle layer also has an internal oblique smooth muscle layer. As a result, in addition to moving food through the canal, the stomach can forcefully absorb the food, mechanically breaking it into small particles.

Functions Of The Stomach In Digestion

Figure 2. The

Digestion: Anatomy, Physiology, And Chemistry