Entrepreneurial Skills – Suma de Negocios (SUMNEG) is the annual publication of the Konrad Lorenz University Foundation, dedicated to various disciplinary and methodological perspectives in marketing, business, management science and quantitative methods. The editing process was governed by double-blind peer review. The journal is intended for teachers, researchers and the general public who are interested in the fields of publishing.
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PhD in Sociology, University of Murcia, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Faculty of Economics and Business, Campus Università de Espinardo, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.
Abilities And Skills As Factors Explaining The Differences In Women Entrepreneurship
PhD in Sociology, University of Murcia, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Faculty of Economics and Business, Campus Università de Espinardo, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.
This study examines women and entrepreneurship from a competency perspective and aims to examine the role of skills and abilities in explaining women’s entrepreneurship. From this point of view, it works on the idea that women entrepreneurs have certain competencies, understood as the sum of skills and abilities that define women’s entrepreneurship (typology, sector, size, creativity, innovation). Methodologically, it worked supported by a qualitative approach by conducting semi-structured interviews among men and women from different socio-economic and business profiles. Based on the inductive and interpretative discourse analysis, we can conclude that businessmen and women entrepreneurs agree to give some skills and opportunities to women entrepreneurs, although there is a significant difference between the understanding of women and men, identifying some gender stereotypes in determining the profile of women. Entrepreneurs.
This work is part of the R+D+i project “Women and Entrepreneurship Effectively”, which aims to explore the role of women’s skills and abilities in explaining their entrepreneurial skills. From this point of view, we work on the idea that female entrepreneurs have certain competencies, perceived as the sum of abilities and skills that define female entrepreneurship (typology, sector, dimensions, creativity and innovation). At the methodological level, we employed a qualitative approach, favoring semi-structured interviews with men and women from different socio-economic and business profiles. Based on the inductive and interpretative discourse analysis, the business community has agreed to provide women entrepreneurs with a large number of skills and opportunities, although there is a significant difference between women and men, because there are still gender stereotypes. When defining the profile of business women.
Introduction According to Schumpeter’s (1942) theory of economic development, economic development depends on the creativity of entrepreneurs to create new businesses. In this way, the entrepreneur is important because he is seen as a creative, organizing and enabling agent of economic growth. Therefore, entrepreneurship is an activity that is seen as viable for economic growth through business creation, creativity and wealth (GEM, 2014). The image of the businessman or entrepreneur is traditionally associated with men, because the characteristics associated with this activity are perceived as strictly masculine. As noted in the GEM Report (2012), cooperation is more favorable to men than women in the entrepreneurial activity in Spain. According to this report on Spain, there are no significant differences in the profile of female and male entrepreneurs due to age (about 38 years) and family ties (3 members). However, differences are observed in the level of education – higher in women; Income is higher among men; Sector of activity – women in consumer and technological activities; And geographical origin – outsourced entrepreneurship is higher among women. Other notable differences are, firstly, that women are less optimistic about the company’s growth prospects, and secondly, that the motivation to start up seems to be more related to the interest in women than in men. The previous context allows us to briefly outline the state of entrepreneurship in our country and its differences when we introduce gender dynamics, but beyond this general approach, this article aims to approach women’s entrepreneurship from the perspective of competence and specifically tries to do this. In the speech of entrepreneurs, it is necessary to know that there is a consensus when there are certain skills and abilities that facilitate or hinder this entrepreneurial activity of women. In this regard, it is clear that the performance of a task requires the acquisition and development of general skills and certain specific skills – for the success of this task (Alda-Varas, Villardon-Gallego, & Elekspuru-Albizuri, 2012) . From this point of view, ANECA (2007) explains that there are five general groups of competences to be considered in the demand of the labor market: related to knowledge, critical thinking, time management, organization and communication. In relation to the development of entrepreneurial skills, these skills are put into practice and demonstrate a series of knowledge such as flexibility and adaptability and mobility and negotiation skills – contributing to people’s competence and successful development. their entrepreneurial activities (Olazi, 2011). But just as men and women learn and behave differently, entrepreneurship can be done differently. And although the processes of use and business seem to be developed independently, there is a strong masculinity in the movement of business entrepreneurs, so the experiences and results of female entrepreneurs are still analyzed with the norm of men and generally understood with delay. as deficits (Jiménez and Diaz, 2011). Therefore, as Pineda (2014) points out, it is important to study the entrepreneurial motivations of women and men involved in the gender structure of entrepreneurship, because otherwise we study the patterns of independent and global entrepreneurs that reflect the habits and ideals of masculinity. Entrepreneurial action. Considering this need for gender analysis, it shows the agreement that the concept of entrepreneurship is socially and culturally constructed, therefore, like other aspects of social action, they must be analyzed from reproducing the experiences obtained in the process. Differential socialization according to gender. . The theory of differential socialization (Giddens, 2010) suggests that women internalize different values, norms, and codes than men during the socialization process, transmitting behavior patterns and different expectations to children, resulting in uneven development as coping skills. Intelligence or compassion, which is more given to women, or the qualities of security and independence, which are generally masculine. In this process, skill development may be unique, with gender being used to enhance some skills over others. These skills and abilities, learned and developed differently, can influence (both positively and negatively) the measures taken to measure women and men equally. Therefore, there is a need to know what skills and abilities women entrepreneurs have in terms of women themselves and their organizational responsibilities, as well as in terms of male entrepreneurs. For this, the speeches of many businessmen and businesswomen with different socio-demographic and professional profiles were analyzed, which allows us to understand both the competence characteristics that are considered psychologically important for female entrepreneurs and also those that are considered suitable. For a successful life. A female entrepreneur. Abilities and Skills: A Theoretical Overview Examining the concepts of abilities and skills involves considering that both components are a broader field of competence along with knowledge (Olazi, 2011). There have been and are many approaches to the concept of competence and its definition. The first approach can be traced back to McClelland (1973), who defines competence as any activity. Moreno, Pelayo, and Vargas (2004) discuss other definitions of competencies by authors such as Boethis (1982, p. 21) in an attempt to collect multiple definitions of this concept. their abilities, assets or body of knowledge”; Spencer and Spencer (1993) who discussed the latent characteristics that enable effective task performance; or Cantera (1999), who identified the personal characteristics that contribute to success, i.e. knowledge, skills and attitudes. And it examines skills. It can be said that they are elements of the individual personality that determine the ability to perform tasks and the successful development of such a task or activity. In the words of Olazi (2011, p. 610), they are considered as “a person can be associated with natural characteristics to control certain situations”. That’s what he said.