What Are Some Diseases Of The Heart – Cardiovascular disease, also known as coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease, refers to many conditions of atherosclerosis or plaque buildup in the arteries of the heart. It often takes the form of a heart attack, stroke, arrhythmia, or heart valve problems.
“When people think of heart disease, they often think of blockages in the arteries. But the reality is that there are problems with muscle function, valve function, the lining of the heart, and the electrical system. Although it is the most common form of heart disease, it is more widespread than stroke,” says Northwestern Medicine cardiologist Micah J. Eimer.
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Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and around the world, but the health care community has made great strides in prevention and treatment: Deaths from heart disease, or heart disease, have declined in recent decades.
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Many risk factors are preventable. The first step in prevention is knowing your family history of heart disease. “It’s not the most comfortable conversation, but you want to spend time on your side,” explains Dr. Eimer. “If you know what’s happening early, with time and the right treatment, almost all of these things can be avoided.”
High blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking are among the main risk factors for heart disease, and 47 percent of people in the United States have at least one of these three risk factors. Diabetes is another major risk factor, and 7 out of 10 people over 65 with diabetes will die from heart disease. There are ways to reduce these and other risks, including eating a healthy diet and incorporating physical activity into your daily routine. The key is to find something you enjoy doing, like hanging out with friends.
Although there are some symptoms associated with heart disease, not everyone experiences them. “The misconception is that they feel fine, so they don’t think they have a problem,” explains Dr. Eimer. “People should be screened for non-obstructive coronary artery disease. These are conditions that cause no or no symptoms. not detected by a stress test, but can lead to heart disease in the future.” Your primary care provider or cardiologist may use a blood test or recommend a coronary calcium scan to better determine your risk.
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Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect, affecting about 1 in 100 babies born in the United States. need an operation or procedure in the first year of life. However, as the detection and treatment of congenital heart disease advances rapidly, outcomes for children with congenital heart disease are improving.
“Survival of children with congenital heart disease has improved dramatically,” said Andrew Laschus, MD, a pediatric cardiologist at Children’s Heart Specialists, Children’s Health Center. “These children have many opportunities to live full and healthy lives.”
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Congenital heart disease is a defect or structural problem in the heart or circulatory system that a child is born with. Congenital heart defects can involve the walls, valves, and arteries or veins of the heart near the heart. These defects occur during fetal development and can be detected by ultrasound and fetal echocardiogram while the fetus is still in the womb. Other types of heart defects are detected at birth by symptoms such as blue eyes or by a simple test.
“By measuring the oxygen saturation of a child’s blood, we can pick up another important sign that doesn’t immediately tell if a child has congenital heart disease,” explains Dr. Laschus.
When a congenital heart defect is detected during pregnancy or early screening, doctors can act quickly to keep the baby safe and healthy.
Congenital heart defects affect 1% of babies born each year in the United States – that’s 40,000 babies born with a congenital heart defect each year.
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“Although congenital heart defects are not uncommon, they are not that rare,” Dr. Lashus said. “Congenital heart disease is the most common of both birth defects and diseases in children.”
Because the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease have improved so much over the years, more children are growing up to live healthy lives. About 3 million children and adults live with congenital heart disease.
There are different types of congenital heart defects. Congenital heart defects can be divided into general categories: cyanotic congenital heart disease, mammary congenital heart disease, congenital heart disease, and other congenital and acyanotic or acute heart defects.
These types of congenital heart defects cause the baby to appear blue at birth (called cyanosis). The blue color is caused by deoxygenated blood flowing through the body. Common cyanotic heart defects:
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All of these conditions require surgery in the first year of life. They may even require multiple surgeries to keep the heart healthy.
All babies are born with a small hole in the heart called the ductus arteriosus. In the first days of life, the hole usually closes on its own. However, in some children, the hole does not close on its own (called a patent ductus arteriosus or PDA). Children with congenital heart defects due to the placenta will experience cardiovascular collapse when the PDA closes. Prostaglandins, a type of medicine, help keep the ductus arteriosus open until children undergo surgery or catheterization to correct a congenital heart defect.
About 25% of congenital heart defects are considered significant, meaning they will require surgery or intervention within the first year of a child’s life.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is the most complex of congenital heart diseases. “It’s one of the most serious but treatable congenital heart defects,” Dr. Laschus said.
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Although these heart defects can affect the baby’s health, they are less dangerous. These may include minor valve defects such as ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, and bicuspid aortic valves. These defects can be treated independently or with limited intervention, and no surgery is necessary during the first year of life.
The most common congenital heart defect is a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). The aortic valve opens and closes to allow blood to flow from the heart into the aorta. The aorta is the main blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood around the body. This defect occurs when there are only two leaflets inside the valve instead of three. About 2% of all people have bicuspid aortic valve and may not know it.
“It varies in how serious the damage can be,” says Dr. Lashus. In others, the valve may be really thick and won’t open properly. In these cases, the baby may need a catheter in the first day of life.”
Thanks to advances in detection and treatment, almost all children with congenital heart defects have hope for a healthy childhood.
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“I say parents are raising a child, not a condition,” Dr. Lashus said. “My job is to break down the barriers between your child and living as healthy and normal a life as possible. Children with congenital heart disease can really thrive and live healthy lives.”
Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect in the United States, affecting 1 in 100 babies, and the future for children living with CHD is encouraging thanks to advances in treatment. Learn more @ Click the button
The heart center at Children’s Health Center, including pediatric heart specialists, provides expert diagnosis and effective treatment for the entire spectrum of pediatric heart disease so children can have healthy childhood years. Learn more about how we treat congenital heart defects at the Heart Center.
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/ PM Venous Return, / CMC_Design // Rules / Truncus Arteriosus, / CMC_Design // Conditions / Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, / CMC_Design // Rules / Patent Ductus Arteriosus PDA, / CMC_Design // Rules / VSD Ventricular Defects, / CMC_Design / / Rules // Rules / Atrial Septal Defect by Megan Soliman, MD – Reviewed by Tricia Kinman and James Roland – Updated
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