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What Are Other Functions Of The Liver In The Body
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Solution: Clinical Chemistry Liver Function
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The liver is a large organ located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. It is a multifunctional accessory organ of the digestive tract and performs several important functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, bile production and nutrient storage. It is the largest gland in the human body, weighing about 1.5 kilograms. It works synchronously with many other organs and contributes to the maintenance of basic homeostatic mechanisms.
The liver is completely covered by the visceral peritoneum, except for an open area where the liver meets the diaphragm.
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Superficial system (lymphatic vessels of the subserosal areolar tissue) Deep system (lymphatic vessels of the liver substance)
There are four anatomical divisions, which are further divided into smaller segments according to the blood supply to the liver.
The right lobe is the largest of the four lobes, and the left lobe is flat, smaller. These two lobes are separated by the recesses of the gallbladder and the inferior vena cava.
The scapular lobe is located between the cleft of the ligamentum venosum and the inferior vena cava, while the quadrilateral lobe is between the gallbladder and the cleft of the ligamentum teres hepatis.
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The two main surfaces of the liver are the diaphragmatic surface and the visceral surface. The latter is covered by the visceral peritoneum, except for the porta hepatis and the base of the gallbladder. This surface is directly connected to several anatomical structures, including:
The surface of the diaphragm rests against the lower surface of the diaphragm and is covered by the visceral peritoneum, except for the exposed area.
The porta hepatis is the central intraperitoneal fissure (on the visceral surface) of the liver that separates the caudate and quadrate lobes. It is the entry and exit point for several important structures, including the portal vein, hepatic arteries, hepatic ducts, hepatic plexus, and lymphatic vessels.
The subdiaphragmatic fossa is the space between the diaphragmatic surface of the liver and the lower surface of the diaphragm; it is divided into right and left regions by the falciform ligament of the liver.
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The hepatorenal fossa is a space located in the lower right part of the liver, between this organ and the right kidney and adrenal gland.
The deep system consists of hepatic lymphatic vessels that follow the portal veins of the liver, so most of the lymph flows into the hepatic nodes in the hilus of the liver, which drain into the celiac nodes. They drain into the cistern (if present) and into the thoracic duct. Additional lymphatic vessels exit through the open area after the hepatic veins as they join the inferior vena cava. Therefore, some of the hepatic lymph nodes drain into the lower phrenic/diaphragmatic nodes (or upper right lumbar lymph nodes), which drain into the right posterior mediastinal nodes. From there, the lymph flows up along the right mediastinal lymphatic chain and merges into the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct.
The superficial system transports lymphatic fluid through channels in the subserosal areolar tissue (Glisson’s capsule) that surrounds the liver. The inferior, anterior, and superior surfaces drain into the hepatic nodules located in the hilus of the liver. The right upper surface often drains into lymphatic vessels after the inferior phrenic artery and connects to the celiac nodes. The posterior surface of the liver is guided to the open part of the liver and the lower diaphragmatic nodes / right lumbar nodes, which are drained as described above.
The liver is a special organ in that it receives more venous blood than arterial blood because it helps purify the blood through detoxification. Most of the blood vessels are brought to this organ via the portal vein, which carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract full of metabolites absorbed in the gut. The rest of the blood supply to this organ comes from the common hepatic artery, which originates in the celiac artery and carries oxygenated blood to the liver.
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The hepatic veins are formed by the union of the central veins. They direct blood from the liver directly into the inferior vena cava just before it passes through the diaphragm.
The nerve supply to the liver originates from the hepatic plexus, which runs with the hepatic artery and portal vein. The liver also receives sympathetic fibers from the celiac plexus and parasympathetic fibers from the anterior and posterior trunks of the vagus.
The liver is a major organ responsible for several vital functions such as metabolism, immunity, digestion, detoxification and vitamin storage. It is responsible for producing bile, which aids in the digestion and absorption of lipids (or fats) while storing and metabolizing fat-soluble vitamins. This organ is crucial for the metabolism or detoxification of several chemical substances, such as drugs. It is responsible for the metabolism of bilirubin, which is the result of the breakdown of heme in red blood cells. The liver is also involved in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. Finally, it is the site of synthesis of important plasma proteins such as albumin and clotting factors.
Blood tests are done to evaluate liver hepatocyte function and bile secretion if one or more of these signs are present. The most common liver diseases are liver failure, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and cholestasis.
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Liver damage typically has four stages, starting with inflammation and progressing to end-stage liver disease (ESLD).
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Liver damage can accumulate over several stages of liver disease. Each stage has a cumulative effect on the liver’s ability to function properly.
Damage from liver disease can accumulate in several stages. With each stage, your liver’s ability to work becomes more and more affected.
In this early stage, your liver becomes enlarged or inflamed. Many people with hepatitis do not experience symptoms. If the inflammation continues, permanent liver damage can occur.
The scar that forms at this stage replaces healthy liver tissue, but cannot perform the same functions. This can start to affect the optimal functioning of the liver.
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In cirrhosis, severe scarring of the liver is seen, leading to accumulation of scars. Since there is not so much healthy liver tissue, it is very difficult for the liver to function properly.
Although symptoms may not be present in the early stages, you may develop symptoms of liver disease.
ESLD is associated with complications such as ascites (a type of abdominal swelling) and hepatic encephalopathy (decreased brain function). The only treatment that can reverse ESLD is a liver transplant.
Liver failure is when your liver doesn’t work well enough to perform its many vital functions, such as cleaning your blood of toxins and producing bile to help you digest food.
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Liver failure can occur due to liver damage caused by liver disease. However, it is not inevitable that liver damage and disease will lead to liver failure.
Acute liver failure develops quickly and often occurs in people with no history of liver disease. Chronic liver failure occurs due to liver damage that develops slowly over time.
The cause of liver failure can depend on whether the liver failure is acute or chronic. In some cases, the exact cause of acute liver failure may be unknown. Chronic liver failure is related to liver damage or disease.
Inflammation and fibrosis, the earliest stages of liver damage or disease, rarely cause noticeable symptoms. Symptoms are associated with more advanced stages.
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They may occur if you have a medical condition such as decompensated cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, or advanced chronic liver failure.
Acute liver failure is always a medical emergency. If you develop symptoms of acute liver failure, see your doctor immediately.
To diagnose liver problems, your doctor will start by taking your medical history and performing a physical exam.
Acute liver failure is often treated in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU). You can
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